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Have you noticed your pet constantly itching its skin or ears, developing red patches on its skin or suffering from recurring skin or ear infections? If yes, your dog or cat might be suffering from food allergies. Food allergies in pets are estimated to account for approximately 10% of all pet allergy cases.
Food allergy symptoms in pets commonly include: irritation of the skin, face and paws; irritation of the anal area in dogs and the head and neck of cats; and recurring skin and ear infections. Food allergies are an immune-mediated, adverse reaction to certain foods in a pet’s diet.
Food allergies and food intolerances are often confused, but they are not the same thing. Food allergies involve an immune overreaction to a food ingredient while food intolerances involve an inability to digest a certain proteins or substances. The symptoms of each also differ. Food allergies often affect the skin of dogs and cats while food intolerances can cause symptoms like vomiting and diarrhea (and typically do not include an allergic skin response).
Food allergies are notoriously hard to diagnose, and before you conclude your pet has a food allergy you should consider whether your pet’s itching might also be caused by parasites (such as fleas, mites or lice), superficial bacterial or yeast infections, environmental allergies or a combination of the foregoing. Common environmental allergens include pollen, molds, dust mites, cigarette smoke, shampoos, detergents, perfumes and flea-control products.
Common Food Allergens
In dogs, the most common food allergens are beef, chicken, dairy, corn, soy and wheat. Cats will commonly have sensitivities to fish, beef, dairy, corn, soy and wheat gluten. Pets can also have reactions to food dyes, preservatives and additives that are commonly found in pet foods.
Cause of Food Allergies
All dogs and cats can develop food allergies. Food allergies in pets often develop over time with repeated exposure to allergenic proteins in their diets. Some food allergies in dogs are genetic and certain breeds appear to be more likely to develop food allergies, including terriers, setters, retrievers and flat-faced breeds like bulldogs and pugs.
Diagnosing Food Allergies
Diagnosing food allergies can be tricky. If you suspect your pet has a food allergy, it is best to work with you veterinarian to identify the food allergen. Your vet might recommend an elimination diet that will help you pinpoint the cause of the allergic reaction. When on the elimination diet, you will need to be careful to ensure that none of the foods, treats, chews or medicines that you give your pet contain the suspected food allergen. If you suspect your pet is suffering from food allergies, we recommend that you consult with a qualified veterinarian.
Our Allergenic Treats
Boulder Dog Food Company, LLC makes a variety of treats that are perfect for dogs and cats with food allergies. Our bison line of dog and cat treats, bones and chews is especially suited for dogs and cats suffering from food allergies. Bison is generally thought to be less allergenic than most types of meat. This is partially due to the fact that most dogs and cats have not been overexposed to it in their regular diet. Boulder Dog Food Company, LLC specializes in making single-ingredient pet treats that don’t contain grains or fillers, harmful chemicals, mold inhibitors and other ingredients that are toxic to pets and might be the cause of other allergic reactions. Read more about our allergenic treats on our website at www.boulderdogfoodcompany.com.
(1) ASPCA, “Allergies” available at https://www.aspca.org/pet-care/dog-care/allergies
(2) ASPCA, “Allergies” available at https://www.aspca.org/pet-care/cat-care/allergies
(3) Banfield Pet Hospital, “Understanding Food Allergies in Your Pets” available at http://www.banfield.com/pet-health-resources/preventive-care/nutrition/understanding-food-allergies-in-your-pets
(4) Banfield Pet Hospital, “Atopy or Food Related Allergic Skin Disease” available at http://www.banfield.com/pet-health-resources/pet-health-concerns/allergies/atopy
(5) Drs. Tom & Tara Suplizio, “Environmental Allergies vs. Food Allergies” Grand Junction Daily Sentinel, November 11, 2012
(6) E. Pask and L. Scott, “Food Allergies 101” at http://moderndogmagazine.com/articles/food-allergies-101/15131
Boulder Dog Food Company, LLC is delighted to announce a new gourmet, all-meat treat for dogs: Salmon Filet! Our Salmon Filet is made of 100% pure salmon — no grains, fillers or oils are added. Our salmon are wild-caught in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and cooked in small batches in our bakery in Boulder, Colorado. We are proud to offer this USA sourced and USA made treat!
Our Salmon Filets can be broken into smaller pieces and used as a training treat. This treat is a perfect winter addition to your dog’s diet since it is high in protein and omega fatty acids which help to support a healthy heart, skin and coat. Salmon Filets are now available to order on our website!
Winter has definitely arrived in Boulder, Colorado! We wanted to share some tips for ensuring your furry friends stay healthy and happy this winter.
- Make some noise before you start the car! Outdoor cats often sleep under the hood of cars (or rest there in order to stay warm). Before starting your car, check under the engine for, or bang loudly on the hood of the car to scare away, any cats or other animals that might have sought refuge there to stay warm.
- Feline warmth. During the cold winter months it is best to keep your feline friends inside. If left outside in cold weather, cats can freeze, become lost, injured or killed. By keeping cats inside, you will also reduce their likelihood of exposure to infectious diseases from other animals.
- Outdoor canine sleeping quarters. If your dog sleeps outside, make sure his sleeping space is elevated off of the ground (to minimize heat loss into the ground) and has a warm bed and blanket. The bed can be lined with straw which serves as insulation. Ideally your dog should be able to stand up and turn around in his dog house, but the house shouldn’t be larger as your dog’s body won’t be able to heat the space. Bedding should be thick, dry and changed regularly.
- Hypothermia & Frostbite. Pets shouldn’t be left for long periods of time in below-freezing conditions. Pets that are left outside too long can suffer from hypothermia and frostbite. Ears, paws and tails are particularly susceptible to injury. If your pet is left outside and is whining, shivering, anxious, weak or slows down and stops moving, get your pet inside to warm up as he or she could be exhibiting signs of hypothermia. If you suspect that your pet has suffered from frostbite or hypothermia, seek the advice and care of a veterinarian.
- Snowstorm hazard. It is best to keep your dog on a leash at all times during snowstorms or in icy conditions as dogs can lose their scent and become lost. Before venturing into the snow, make sure your pet has an up-to-date collar. Microchips can also be used to identify pets, and don’t forget to keep the registration current. Be extra careful when walking elderly or arthritic pets on snow or ice as they can have difficulty.
- Winter wipe-down. After walking your dog outside in sleet, snow or ice, thoroughly wipe off his paws, feet, legs and underbelly. Pets can pick up chemicals during their walks that can harm their paws (like salt used to melt snow), mouths (upon licking salty or dirty paws) or that can be toxic (such as antifreeze or other potentially dangerous chemicals). Booties can help protect against injury to your pet’s paws from salt.
- Antifreeze. Care should be taken to avoid any spilled antifreeze when walking your pet, as antifreeze is a lethal poison to dogs and cats. Make sure to wipe up any spilled antifreeze from vehicles and in your garage if pets can access the area.
- Sweaters & Grooming. Sweaters and coats are a good idea when taking your dog out into the cold weather. Dogs lose most of their body heat through their paw pads, ears and as a result of respiration. If you bathe your dog before going on a walk in the cold, make sure your dog is completely dry before going into the cold weather as dogs, like humans, can catch colds. During the cold winter months it is a good idea to avoid shaving your dog down to the skin as a longer coat will provide extra protection from the cold.
- Fresh water supply. Make sure your pets have ample water, and routinely check to confirm that your pet’s outdoor water supply isn’t frozen. Heated bowls of water are a good choice in the winter. Plastic bowls are preferable to metal bowls in the winter months since metal isn’t insulated and can freeze.
- American Veterinary Medical Association, “Cold Weather Pet Safety”, available at https://www.avma.org/public/PetCare/Pages/Cold-weather-pet-safety.aspx
- ASPCA, “Cold Weather Tips”, available at https://www.aspca.org/pet-care/cold-weather-tips
- Banfield Pet Hospital, “Cold Weather Tips for Your Dog”, available at http://www.banfield.com/pet-health-resources/pet-health-concerns/pet-safety-tips/cold-weather-tips-for-your-dog
- Banfield Pet Hospital, “Protect Your Pet During Cold Weather”, available at http://www.banfield.com/pet-health-resources/pet-health-concerns/pet-safety-tips/protect-your-pet-during-cold-weather
- The Humane Society, “Protect Your Pet During Winter and Cold Weather,” available at http://www.humanesociety.org/animals/resources/tips/protect_pets_winter.html
Boulder Dog Food Company, LLC wishes you, your pets and your family a safe and happy holiday season. With the best interests of dogs and cats in mind, we wanted to share some holiday safety tips.
- Don’t let your pets drink Christmas tree water. If you plan to have a Christmas tree this holiday season, we recommend that you securely anchor it in a sturdy stand in order to mitigate the risk of the tree falling and causing injury to a family pet or guest. Also take care to prevent your pets from gaining access to the Christmas tree water in the stand, and quickly clean up any water spills on the floor, as the water might contain fertilizer, toxic preservatives or harmful bacteria that could make your pet sick if ingested. As a precaution, we recommend changing the tree water frequently.
- Keep ornaments and electric lights out of the reach of your pets. Holiday lights and ornaments are beautiful to look at, but they can present a danger to pets if they break or are the target of chewing by pets. Glass and plastic ornaments can shatter and present a danger to your pet’s paws, mouth and digestive system. Further, a loose wire can deliver a potentially lethal electric shock to a pet and batteries can also cause burns or worse. Use tape to get wires out of the reach of pets and to prevent an accident.
- Skip the tinsel. Glimmering tinsel is known to attract the attention of pets (especially cats) but it can cause a lot of problems for pets if swallowed, including an obstructed digestive tract, vomiting and sometimes surgery. Tinsel can get wrapped around the base of a pet’s tongue and cause internal cuts if swallowed. We recommend skipping tinsel this holiday season and using pet friendly decorations instead.
- Choose holiday gifts wisely. If you plan to give your pet a holiday gift or stocking stuffer, we recommend a collection of healthy treats from Boulder Dog Food Company, LLC or toys that are safe and won’t fall apart. Toys are known to come apart and, if swallowed, the pieces can get stuck in the stomachs or intestines of pets, and can require surgery. For cats, we recommend keeping your cats away from ribbon, yarns and loose parts that can cause intestinal blockage and require surgery if swallowed.
- Don’t keep wrapped food items under the Christmas tree, as pets might ingest the wrapping paper or other packaging and the food items in an attempt to secure a tasty treat.
- Avoid giving your pet access to toxic foods. There are lots of foods that taste wonderful to humans but can cause problems when eaten by pets. We recommend keeping the following foods far away from your dogs and cats over the holidays (and after):
- Chocolate, which can be toxic to both dogs and cats. Dark, semi-sweet and baker’s chocolate is especially risky for dogs. If ingested, chocolate can cause vomiting, diarrhea, hyperactivity, abnormal heart rhythm, tremors, seizures and, in severe cases, death in pets.
- Xylitol, which is an artificial sweetener that has been shown to be toxic to pets.
- Fatty, spicy or indulgence foods (like beef fat, poultry skin and spicy foods), which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, gas and other serious gastrointestinal diseases like pancreatitis in pets.
- Raw eggs and cake batter, which might be contaminated with salmonella.
- Onion and onion powder, both of which are poisonous to pets. Onion and onion powder destroy your dog’s and cat’s red blood cells, which can result in anemia.
- Grapes and raisins, both of which contain a toxin that can cause kidney damage (and failure) among dogs and cats.
- Keep holly, mistletoe, lilies and poinsettias away from your pets! If ingested, these plants can make your pets sick. Holly can cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, and mistletoe can cause an upset stomach and cardiovascular problems in pets; both are extremely toxic to pets if eaten. Many types of lilies can also cause kidney failure in cats and poinsettia leaves can cause severe stomach upset. We recommend opting for silk or plastic plants or pet-safe bouquets and plants.
- Keep wrapping paper, tape, ribbon, scented candles and batteries away from pets to ensure they don’t unexpectedly try to make a meal of these items, which can be very hazardous to pets.
- Cover trash and remove unattended plates of food to ensure your pets don’t eat anything that will make them sick or necessitate an unplanned trip to the vet.
- Avoid giving pets alcoholic beverages, as alcoholic beverages (if ingested) can make your pets sick and can result in your pet going into a coma and possibly even death due to respiratory failure.
- Give pets a room of their own. Make sure that your pets have a quiet and comfortable place to go if they get overwhelmed by the activity of your holiday gathering, especially on New Year’s Eve when loud sounds can scare many pets. Your pets should always have fresh water in this place of retreat. Dogs and cats will appreciate having a quiet room with a cozy place to take a nap while their parents enjoy the holiday festivities.
If your pet has an unexpected emergency or gets sick this holiday season, seek the advice of a qualified veterinarian in your area.
(1) ASPCA, “Holiday Safety Tips”, available at http://www.aspca.org/print/pet-care/holiday-safety-tips
(2) VCA Animal Hospitals, “Xylitol Toxicity in Dogs”, available at http://www.vcahospitals.com/main/pet-health-information/article/animal-health/xylitol-toxicity-in-dogs/4340
(3) North Shore Animal League, “Avoid Holiday Hazards: Keep Your Pets Safe and Secure”, available at http://www.animalleague.org/events-news/press-center/holiday-safety-tips.html
(4) Banfield Pet Hospital, “Keep Pets Safe Over the Winter Holidays”, available at http://www.banfield.com/pet-health-resources/pet-health-concerns/pet-safety-tips/keep-pets-safe-over-the-winter-holidays
We would like to tell you about a very worthwhile research effort underway at the Morris Animal Foundation in Denver. In an effort to study canine diseases, this non-profit foundation is looking for 1,000 additional Golden Retrievers to participate in the Golden Retriever Lifetime Study. 2,000 dogs have already enrolled! This study will help gain insight into preventing and treating many canine diseases, but specifically cancer.
Cancer strikes approximately one-third of the canine population over the age of two, but it is especially prevalent in Golden Retrievers. According to the Veterinary School at UC Davis, sixty per cent of Golden Retrievers will die from some type of cancer. Although the cancer rate is nearly double the all-breed average, the average lifespan of Golden Retrievers is still within the same ten to eleven year range.
The two most common cancers are hemangiosarcoma, affecting about one in five Goldens; and lymphoma, affecting about one in eight Goldens. These two cancers represent about half of all the cancers in the breed. The cause for this higher rate in the Golden population is not completely understood but progress is being made.
Cancer is a genetic disease in the sense that errors or mutations in genes are responsible for the disease. But cancer is not inherited unless the mutations occur and are passed along in the germ line cells – namely, the sperm and eggs. Mutations may also occur in the somatic cells which is the other type of cell in the body. It is believed that a combination of mutations in both the germ line and somatic cells are responsible for the high rate of cancer in Golden Retrievers. Inherited mutations would give Golden Retrievers a predisposition to develop cancer. So while not inevitable, it would account for the higher cancer rate that is seen both in the US and abroad. There is also a theory that the early founder dogs in the breed carried mutated genes that have been concentrated through generations of breeding so that this predisposition for cancer is found in Goldens throughout the world today.
The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study is the largest veterinary observational study ever undertaken to track the health of Golden Retrievers. It will focus on studying the risk factors in the areas of canine genetics, environment and nutrition.
In order to qualify, the dog must be a healthy purebred Golden Retriever with a three-generation pedigree and be under two years of age. Participating in this study does require a major commitment since it will last for the lifetime of the dog. An annual examination from the vet will be needed to examine and collect samples of blood, urine, feces, hair and toenail clippings. And samples of any tumor would need to be submitted for evaluation. Enrollment and more information can be found at http://caninelifetimehealth.org
For those of you with Golden Retrievers who qualify for this study, we urge you to enroll in order to help the breed and all our canine companions.
Donations to the Morris Animal Foundation can also be made on their website and would be much appreciated: http://caninelifetimehealth.org/donate/
Reviewed by Boulder Dog Food Company LLC
Brian Hare is an associate professor in the Department of Evolutionary Anthropology at Duke University where he founded the Duke Canine Cognition Center. This book details his investigation into how dogs evolved from wolves and why their intelligence can be considered “genius” in many senses of the word.
In terms of animal cognition, intelligence is judged firstly by how well the species has reproduced and survived in different parts of the world. However in some species – the authors give cockroaches as an example – survival depends less on intelligence than on pure hardiness and great reproductive abilities. But surviving for most animals does take a form of intellect to overcome the obstacles that nature and human beings put in their way. Given this as the basis for assessing intelligence, Brian Hare makes the claim that “the dog is arguably the most successful animal on the planet, besides us. Dogs have spread to all corners of the world, including inside our homes, and in some cases onto our beds. While the majority of mammals on the planet have seen a steep decline in their populations as a result of human activity, there have never been more dogs on the planet than today.”
A cognitive approach recognizes that there are many different kinds of intelligence throughout the animal kingdom, including for humans. Neuroscientists believe that the brain is like a computer in that individual parts are specialized to solve different problems. Memory is a well-recognized cognitive ability, but there are many different forms of it including memory for faces, events, facts, navigation etc. So it is no surprise that IQ tests only measure a very narrow slice of intelligence.
According to Hare, “The genius of dogs – of all animals, for that matter, including humans – has two criteria:
1. A mental skill that is strong compared with others, either within your own species or in closely related species
2. The ability to spontaneously make inferences”
Hare and his co-author, Vanessa Woods, then relate the many experiments they conducted that prove how dogs excel using the above criteria. The really interesting fact emerges that they excel because of domestication. Their desire to please humans makes them learn more like human infants than wolves.
When scientists started to study animal cognition, it was believed that the intelligence of domesticated animals had been dulled since they were by-products of human breeding and they had lost the skills to survive in the wilderness. Hare discovered the opposite was true, that “our relationship with dogs gave them an extraordinary kind of intelligence.” In essence he argues, “they were smart enough to come in from the cold and become part of the family.”
Wolves arrived on the scene roughly 2 million years ago and migrated from North America to Asia, Europe and Africa. Many wild carnivores and of course, the Neanderthals, went extinct when modern humans arrived in Europe 43,000 years ago. Humans became the socially dominant carnivores and, apart from the brown bear and the wolf, few other predators survived.
Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that dogs began evolving from wolves between 12,000-40,000 years ago. Domestication requires genetic changes over many generations. The process of how wolves evolved into dogs remains controversial. One theory holds that wolf puppies were brought into the home and tamed. Hare disputes this accounting since the wolves would have competed with modern man for food – both would have been fiercely possessive of their food and would have fought each other for it.
Hare believes that dogs were “self-domesticated.” He explains this term by saying that the least fearful and aggressive animals had a natural advantage in dealing with humans and that this population evolved on its own to survive and prosper with the newly dominant humans. He believes that these less aggressive animals would have been more successful in foraging near human settlements because they would have posed less of a threat. Subsequent generations would have reinforced these less threatening characteristics of the wolves until, eventually, physiological changes appeared (e.g. floppy ears, splotchy coats) to make themselves more recognizable to humans. An offshoot of domestication was their ability to interpret human gestures. So essentially, natural selection, predisposed to friendliness, led to the self-domestication of dogs.
Hare traveled the globe to see the same kind of natural selection favoring the most friendly members of other species: to Siberia to see an experiment with silver foxes, to New Guinea to see the Singing Dogs, to the Congo to see the bonobos. Hare believes that this same natural selection can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, including in humans.
Selection for friendliness and cooperation and against aggression allowed humans to cooperate and communicate. Early humans would have seen the advantages in sharing food, protecting one another, and caring for each other’s children – which eventually would have led to more reproductive success. Contrary to earlier beliefs that natural selection always favors the smartest, this is the case only if it goes along with the friendliest.
In attempting to answer the question of which breed of dog is the smartest, there are many things to consider including the specific kind of intelligence being sought – working or obedience intelligence. But the short answer is that no breed is clearly the winner. And, there is as much variation within each breed as there is between different breeds.
Although there are broad differences in personality and behavior traits between breeds, it is important to recognize that dogs are genetically very similar despite their specific breed or appearance. Most of the breeds recognized today are less than 150 years old. The dog genome, published in 2003, allowed geneticists to finally confirm their wolf ancestry along with the fact that dogs are still 99.96% wolf. Their physical appearances may vary greatly, but only a small number of dog genes are responsible for the variations in size, skulls, coats and other morphological traits.
The genius of dogs is their ability, across all breeds, to understand verbal and visual communication from humans. A cognitive approach to training works well because dogs are motivated to cooperate with humans and because they can make inferences from solving past problem to tackle new problems.
The domestication of dogs has been a complete success story. Toward the end of his book, Hare concludes, “Dogs show an affiliation toward humans that is unlike any other in the animal kingdom. They prefer humans to their own species and can behave like human infants toward their parents. If the dictionary defines love as ‘a feeling of warm, personal attachment, or deep affection,’ then this is definitely what dogs have for us.” It is up to us to demonstrate that we deserve this devotion.
I received my package of dog treats today. I am amazed with your customer service and quality — quality service, quality packaging, and quality items.
Thank you also for the surprise treat samples! That was amazingly generous and much appreciated.
I am so happy that I found your website. Thanks for offering healthy, pure, natural, chewy treats for my very sweet and allergic GSD.
Have a happy 4th of July!
Thank you for your very kind note. We will pass on your complements to everyone in the bakery. We strive for high quality treats and prompt service. We always enjoy hearing from our customers when we have achieved both!
We are happy that you found us too!